Capillary Electrochromatography and Pressurized Flow
Capillary Electrochromatography: An Introduction

Ira S. Krull, Robert L. Stevenson, and Kavita Mistry, with Michael E. Swartz

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May 2000
240 pp.
ISBN: 0-9664286-2-5

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缯span> Preface

Capillary electrochromatography (CEC) has become an area of intense interest, attention, research, and commercial development all around the world. Although CEC has been described in the open literature for almost three decades, its flowering in terms of publications, presentations, reviews, and dedicated meetings is much more recent, perhaps less than one decade.

This book begins by describing the basic operations and principles of CEC, as well as pressurized flow variations, such as pressurized CEC (PEC) and electro-high-performance liquid chromatography (electro-HPLC). We describe the basic instrumentation, principles of operations, basic equations of operation, history, and making of suitable capillaries for conventional, isocratic, or gradient CEC. The problems remaining and opportunities for improving capillary packing technologies are discussed, as well as the proper selection of packings (packed beds vs. monolithic or polymeric). We next present an in-depth discussion of the selection of mobile phases for CEC; how these affect electroosmotic flow; and how the proper buffer, organic solvents, pH, ionic strength, and other buffer components can all affect the total elution time, migration time, dead volume, and overall analysis time. Chapter 4 emphasizes the instrumentation prevalent today in CEC, what commercial sources exist, how conventional capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrumentation can be adapted for CEC/PEC or electro-HPLC, how buffer and capillary pressurization can be utilized (and why they should be), and the major detectors commonly used in CEC today.

The next two chapters discuss different areas of application where CEC has been pursued, optimized, and even applied to real-world samples. Chapter 5 describes applications for small molecules, especially pharmaceuticals, chiral resolution, amino acids, and so forth. Chapter 6 covers applications for biopolymers, including proteins, peptides, nucleosides, carbohydrates, and related compounds.

Chapters 7 covers areas of method transfer from HPLC to CEC or PEC, and the best approaches possible for so doing, with recommendations for use of commercial software. Chapter 8 covers the area of method development and optimization in CEC/PEC, how to approach such an optimization and know when optimization is reached, and the best approaches to optimize a new method in this format.

Finally, Chapter 9 discusses possible future developments in CEC; what is expected to next occur in its evolution, what improvements in capillary technology, detectors, and packings are yet needed; and related areas, including novel applications not yet explored. We conclude with an overview of where this technique has come from, where it is today, and where it might be tomorrow, if it continues to develop in a positive manner and direction. We also provide some warnings for those analysts who might wish to investigate and apply CEC/PEC to their own unique applications areas, and how they might garner more success than otherwise, depending on the particular approaches they take.

The book does not attempt to describe method development based solely on the structures of analytes but rather utilizes adaptation of existing HPLC or CEC conditions and methods for a given analyte or its related compounds. Thus, we do not discuss CEC method development by working strictly from a given analyteⳠstructure, selecting the specific packing and mobile phase conditions, and so forth. We have purposely chosen to start with the literature describing existing CEC or HPLC methods for a particular structure or group of compounds, modify and optimize these conditions as needed for a particular analyteⳠstructure and/or sample matrix, and then proceed with method validation of the final, optimized set of CEC conditions and separations realized.

缯span> Contents | 缯span> About the Authors

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