Electroanalytical Methods in Pharmaceutical Analysis and Their Validation

Sibel A. Ozkan

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October 2011
350 pp.

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ISBN: 978-0-9664286-7-4




Pharmaceutical analysts in research and development play a critical role in the development of new pharmaceutically active compounds and follow-up activities to ensure that the products meet established standards of quality and stability throughout their shelf life. Electroanalytical methods provide key information about drug molecules and their mechanism of action. They are not used more only because of a lack of trained personnel and dependable commercial instrumentation.

Applications of electrochemical techniques for redox-active drug development and mechanistic studies are a recent interest in drug discovery. Many vital physiological processes depend on redox reactions, and it is easy to find relationships, albeit not absolute, between electrochemical and biological reactions regarding electron transfer pathways. Even allowing for the in vivo effects of biological reactions, the oxidation mechanisms that take place at the electrode and in the body are fundamentally related.


Electroanalytical techniques can easily solve many problems of pharmaceutical interest with a high degree of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and selectivity. Pulsed voltammetric techniques are readily available for analytical applications and studies of electrode mechanisms. A review of the various electroanalytical methods and their validation for drug development are the focus of this book.


The high performance, small size, and low cost of electrochemical devices have led to many important analysis systems. Given the impressive progress in electroanalytical chemistry and its growing impact on analytical chemistry, this work offers an up-to-date, easy-to-read presentation of recent advances using solid electrodes and discusses validation of electroanalytical methods. The book will be useful to those considering the use of electroanalysis in their laboratories and is suitable for a graduate-level course in applied electroanalytical chemistry.


Chapter 1 introduces drug types and classes. Chapter 2 provides background on electrochemistry and some necessary electrochemical equations. Chapter 3 gives an overview of electroanalytical experimental considerations and conditions. Chapter 4 summarizes working electrode types (including newly introduced electrode materials and modified electrodes), surface characterizations, and use for electrochemical reactions. Chapter 5 deals with the principles of cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry and their applications for pharmaceutical analysis, while the related Chapter 6 discusses pulses voltammetric methods. Chapter 7 is devoted to the growing field of voltammetry and its use as a stripping technique. Chapter 8 reviews some of the relevant and recent achievements in the electrochemistry processes and parameters mainly related to drug discovery and diseases. Chapter 9 contains all necessary validation parameters and their calculations for electroanalytical studies. Numerous references, covering the latest literature, are given at the end of each chapter.


Although there have been books on electrochemical themes, it is surprising that detailed explanations of electrochemical applications for pharmaceutically active compounds and the necessary validation processes of electroanalytical methods have not been available.


I hope that this book will make it much easier for potential users in pharmaceutical and environmental laboratories as well as in academic research to successfully apply electroanalytical studies and their validation.


I am thankful to HNB Publishing for publishing this book and for the great freedom given to me in choosing the topics. I also wish to thank my family for their love, support, and patience. Finally, I would like to thank my colleague Mehmet Gumustas for his help in creating some of the figures, including the cover design, and to my coauthors for their valuable contributions.

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